The Upsurge of the Metaverse in Educational Settings: A Meta-analysis Study


  • Ahmed Al Khateeb King Faisal University
  • Hind Alotaibi



metaverse, effectiveness, education, effect size, meta-analysis, students’ performance


The metaverse has the potential to revolutionise education in several ways. It can provide students with immersive learning experiences, allowing them to explore and interact with virtual worlds and objects that are difficult or impossible to replicate in the real world. Yet, studies investigating the impact of the metaverse on students' skills and performance are limited due to its novelty. The present meta-analysis study explores the overall effect size of integrating metaverse technologies into educational contexts and the significance of several factors that could influence the effectiveness of such technology. Twenty-four experimental studies conducted between 2020–2023 were statistically analysed. The results revealed that employing the metaverse generally has a large effect size (d=0.94) on learning, indicating that integrating the metaverse in educational settings can significantly enhance students’ performance. Other variables, such as educational level, skills targeted, subject taught and technology used, were also investigated. A discussion of these findings and their implications are presented.


Download data is not yet available.


Alfaisal, R., Hashim, H. & Azizan, U. H. (2022). Metaverse system adoption in education: a systematic literature review. Journal of Computers in Education, 1–45.

Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (2021). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman.

Aslan, S. A. & Duruhan, K. (2021). The effect of virtual learning environments designed according to problem-based learning approach to students’ success, problem-solving skills, and motivations. Education and Information Technologies, 26(2), 2253–2283.

Boulton, Chris A.; Kent, Carmel and Williams, Hywel T. P. (2018). Virtual learning environment engagement and learning outcomes at a 'bricks-and-mortar' university. Computers & Education, 126 pp. 129–142.

Borenstein M., Hedges L. V., Higgins J. P. T. & Rothstein H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Wiley.

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J. & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2.2.027). Biostat.

Caluya, N. R., Plopski, A., Sandor, C., Fujimoto, Y., Kanbara, M. & Kato, H. (2022). Does overlay field of view in head-mounted displays affect spatial memorization? Computers & Graphics, 102, 554–565.

Chengoden, R., Victor, N., Huynh-The, T., Yenduri, G., Jhaveri, R. H., Alazab, M., ...Gadekallu, T. R. (2023). Metaverse for healthcare: a survey on potential applications, challenges and future directions. IEEE Access. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3241628

Çoğaltay, N. & Karadağ, E. (2015). Introduction to Meta-Analysis. In E. Karadağ (Ed.), Leadership and Organizational Outcomes (pp. 19–28). Springer International Publishing.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Contreras, G. S., González, A. H., Fernández, M. I. S., Martínez, C. B., Cepa, J. & Escobar, Z. (2022). The importance of the application of the metaverse in education. Modern Applied Science, 16(3), 1–34.

Dahan, N. A., Al-Razgan, M., Al-Laith, A., Alsoufi, M. A., Al-Asaly, M. S. & Alfakih, T. (2022). Metaverse framework: A case study on E-learning environment (ELEM). Electronics, 11(10), 1616.

Dalgarno, B. & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 10–32.

Duval, S. & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and Fill: A Simple Funnel-Plot-Based Method of Testing and Adjusting for Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis. Biometrics, 56(2), 455–463.

Go, H. & Kang, M. (2023). Metaverse tourism for sustainable tourism development: Tourism agenda 2030. Tourism Review, 78(2), 381–394.

Guo, C., Dou, Y., Bai, T., Dai, X., Wang, C. & Wen, Y. (2023). ArtVerse: A Paradigm for Parallel Human–Machine Collaborative Painting Creation in Metaverses. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems. https://doi: 10.1109/TSMC.2022.3230406

Gursoy, D., Malodia, S. & Dhir, A. (2022). The metaverse in the hospitality and tourism industry: An overview of current trends and future research directions. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 31(5), 527–534.

Higgins, J. P. T. & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21(11), 1539–1558.

Huh, S. (2022). Application of computer-based testing in the Korean Medical Licensing Examination, the emergence of the metaverse in medical education, journal metrics and statistics, and appreciation to reviewers and volunteers. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 19(2), 1-6.

Hwang, G. J. & Chien, S. Y. (2022). Definition, roles, and potential research issues of the metaverse in education: An artificial intelligence perspective. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100082.

Hwang, S. & Koo, G. (2023). Art marketing in the metaverse world: Evidence from South Korea. Cogent Social Sciences, 9(1), 2175429.

*Hwang, Y. (2023). When makers meet the metaverse: Effects of creating NFT metaverse exhibition in maker education. Computers & Education, 194, 104693.

Jeong, S. H. & Kim, H. K. (2023). Effect of Trust in Metaverse on Usage Intention through Technology Readiness and Technology Acceptance Model. Tehnički vjesnik, 30(3), 837–845.

Kanematsu, H., Kobayashi, T., Barry, D. M., Fukumura, Y., Dharmawansa, A. & Ogawa, N. (2014). Virtual STEM Class for Nuclear Safety Education in Metaverse. Procedia Computer Science, 35, 1255–1261.

Kemp, J. & Livingstone, D. (2006). Putting a Second Life “metaverse” skin on learning management systems. Proceedings of the Second Life education workshop at the Second Life community convention, San Francisco, CA, The University of Paisley, (20).

Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J. & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75–86.

Kye, B., Han, N., Kim, E., Park, Y. & Jo, S. (2021). Educational applications of metaverse: Possibilities and limitations. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 18-32.

Lee, H. & Hwang, Y. (2022). Technology-enhanced education through VR-making and metaverse-linking to foster teacher readiness and sustainable learning. Sustainability, 14(8), 4786.

*Lee, H., Woo, D. & Yu, S. (2022). Virtual Reality Metaverse System Supplementing Remote Education Methods: Based on Aircraft Maintenance Simulation. Applied Sciences, 12(5), 2667.

Lee, J., Hollister, J. M., Lim, T., Kim, K. & Ryu, J. (2022). A Case Review for the Design of VR-based Training for Enhancing Empathy and Cultural Competency of Public Librarians. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 12(special issue).

Lee, K. M., Jung, Y., Kim, J. & Kim, S. R. (2010). Are physically embodied social agents better than disembodied social agents? The effects of physical embodiment, tactile interaction, and people's loneliness in human–robot interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68(12), 888–895.

Lee, L. H., Braud, T., Zhou, P., Wang, L., Xu, D., Lin, Z., Kumar, A., Bermejo, C. & Hui, P. (2021). All one needs to know about metaverse: A complete survey on technological singularity, virtual ecosystem, and research agenda.

Lipsey, M. W. & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. SAGE publications, Inc.

Liu, R., Wang, L., Lei, J., Wang, Q. & Ren, Y. (2020). Effects of an immersive virtual reality‐based classroom on students’ learning performance in science lessons. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(6), 2034–2049.

López Belmonte, J., Pozo-Sánchez, S., Moreno-Guerrero, A. J. & Lampropoulos, G. (2023). Metaverse in Education: a systematic review. RED. Revista de Educación a Distancia. Núm., 73(23).

*Makransky, G. & Mayer, R. E. (2022). Benefits of Taking a Virtual Field Trip in Immersive Virtual Reality: Evidence for the Immersion Principle in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychology Review, 34(3), 1771–1798.

Martínez-Martínez, A. M., López-Liria, R., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Trigueros, R., Morales-Gázquez, M. J. & Rocamora-Pérez, P. (2020). Relationship between emotional intelligence, cybervictimization, and academic performance in secondary school students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(21), 7717.

Mystakidis, S. (2022). Metaverse Encyclopedia, 2(1), 486–497.

Mystakidis, S., Besharat, J., Papantzikos, G., Christopoulos, A., Stylios, C., Agorgianitis, S. & Tselentis, D. (2022). Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Virtual Reality Serious Game for School Fire Preparedness Training. Education Sciences, 12(4), 281.

Oh, H. J., Kim, J., Chang, J. J., Park, N. & Lee, S. (2023). Social benefits of living in the metaverse: The relationships among social presence, supportive interaction, social self-efficacy, and feelings of loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 139, 107498.

Park, S. & Kim, S. (2022). Identifying world types to deliver gameful experiences for sustainable learning in the metaverse. Sustainability, 14(3), 1361.

Queiroz, M. M., Fosso Wamba, S., Pereira, S. C. F. & Chiappetta Jabbour, C. J. (2023). The metaverse as a breakthrough for operations and supply chain management: Implications and call for action. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, (ahead-of-print)

Reyes, C. (2020). Perception of high school students about using metaverse in augmented reality learning experiences in mathematics. Pixel Bit: Revista De Medios Y Educación, 58, 143–159.

Rospigliosi, P. (2022). ‘Asher.’ metaverse or Simulacra? Roblox, Minecraft, meta and the turn to virtual reality for education, socialisation, and work. Interactive Learning Environments, 30(1), 1–3. 1080/10494820.2022.2022899

Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence: Imagination, cognition and personality. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 1989-90.

Samala, A. D., Bojic, L., Indarta, Y., Tsoy, D., Denden, M., Tas, N. & Dewi, I. P. (2023). Metaverse Technologies in Education: A Systematic Literature Review Using PRISMA. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 18(5). https://doi:10.3991/ijet.v18i05.35501

Sarıtaş, M. T. & Topraklıkoğlu, K. (2022). Systematic literature review on the use of metaverse in education. International Journal of Technology in Education (IJTE), 5(4), 586–607.

Schlemmer, E., Moretti, G. & Backes, L. (2015). Multimodal and hybrid sharing spaces: hypothesis and challenges for learning. Qwerty-Open and Interdisciplinary Journal of Technology, Culture and Education, 10(2), 78–91.

*Sghaier, S., Elfakki, A. O. & Alotaibi, A. A. (2022). Development of an intelligent system based on metaverse learning for students with disabilities. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9, 1006921.

Shu, X. & Gu, X. (2023). An Empirical Study of a Smart Education Model Enabled by the Edu-Metaverse to Enhance Better Learning Outcomes for Students. Systems, 11(2), 75.

Son, J., Lee, S. & Han, J. (2022). The effectiveness of collaborative learning in SW education based on Metaverse platform. Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education, 26(1), 11–22.

Stephenson, N. (2003). Snow crash: A novel. Spectra.

Suh, W. & Ahn, S. (2022). Utilizing the metaverse for learner-centered constructivist education in the post-pandemic era: An analysis of elementary school students. Journal of Intelligence, 10(1), 17.

Suzuki, S., Kanematsu, H., Barry, D. M., Ogawa, N., Yajima, K., Nakahira, K. T., Shirai, T., Kawaguchi, M., Kobayashi, T., & Yoshitake, M. (2020). Virtual experiments in metaverse and their applications to Pradana & Elisa, Cogent Social Sciences (2023), 9: 2252656 Page 23 of 24 Collaborative Projects: The framework and its significance. Procedia Computer Science, 176, 2125–2132. 249

Tlili, A., Huang, R., Shehata, B., Liu, D., Zhao, J., Metwally, A. H. S., ... & Burgos, D. (2022). Is Metaverse in education a blessing or a curse: a combined content and bibliometric analysis. Smart Learning Environments, 9(1), 1-31.

Volchek, K. & Brysch, A. (2023). Metaverse and Tourism: From a New Niche to a Transformation. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2023: Proceedings of the ENTER 2023 eTourism Conference, January 18–20, 2023, Cham, Springer Nature Switzerland, 300–311.

Wåhlström, D. & Sun, T. (2022). Sensemaking & Decision Making in Uncertainty: A case study on how tech leaders navigate the Metaverse. (Unpublished master thesis), Uppsala Universitet, 1-69.

Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design (expanded 2nd ed) Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia.

*Yang, S.-Y. & Kang, M.-K. (2022). Efficacy Testing of a Multi-Access Metaverse-Based Early Onset Schizophrenia Nursing Simulation Program: A Quasi-Experimental Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(1), 449.

Yawised, K., Apasrawirote, D. & Boonparn, C. (2022). From traditional business shifted towards transformation: The emerging business opportunities and challenges in ‘Metaverse’ era. INCBAA, 162, 175.

Yoshitake, M. (2020). Virtual Experiments in Metaverse and their Applications to Collaborative Projects: The framework and its significance. Procedia Computer Science, 176, 2125–2132.




How to Cite

Al Khateeb, A., & Alotaibi, H. (2024). The Upsurge of the Metaverse in Educational Settings: A Meta-analysis Study. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 14(3), 62–75.