The Effect of the Use of Digital Gamification and Metacognitive Skills on Students’ Mathematics Solving Ability


  • Sigit Dwi Laksana Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Punaji Setyosari Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Henry Praherdhiono Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Dedi Kuswandi Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Dahlia Jannan Sultan Idris Education University



Gamification, Metacognitive, Education, Mathematics, Problem-Solving Skill


Mathematics is one of the essential subjects for students because it focuses more on the ability to remember, memorize, and interpret. In addition, gamification in mathematics is excellent since it promotes critical and creative problem-solving and enhances children's metacognitive abilities. This experimental study investigates the impact of digital gamification and metacognitive skills on the mathematical problem-solving capabilities of primary school students. This type of research is quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest control group design. The number of samples used was 108 students consisting of 55 students in the experimental class and 53 in the control class. The research data was collected with the MAI (Metacognitive Awareness Inventory) instrument for metacognitive skills and problem-solving tests. The data analysis technique used is Two Way Anova. This study yielded several findings. Among them, there are significant differences in students' solving abilities based on the application of gamification in learning. Second, there is a significant difference in students' problem-solving abilities based on metacognitive skills. In addition, there is an interaction between digital gamification and metacognitive skills on students' mathematical problem-solving abilities.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Khateeb, M. A. (2018). The effect of teaching mathematical problem solving through using mobile learning on the seventh-grade students' ability to solve them in Jordan. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 12(3), 178–191.

Ali, R., Hukamdad, D., Akhter, A., & Khan, A. (2010). Effect of Using Problem Solving Method in Teaching Mathematics on the Achievement of Mathematics Students. Asian Social Science, 6(2), 67–72.

Alsubhi, M. A., & Sahari, N. (2020). A Conceptual Engagement Framework for Gamified E-Learning Platform Activities. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(22), 4–23.

ANDRZEJ MARCZEWSKI. (2017). The Gamification Design Framework. Gamified.Uk.

Annaggar, A., & Tiemann, R. (2016). Collaborative Problem Solving in Chemistry Education The Gamification Effect on Individual and Collaborative Modelling of Problem Solving Skills. September 2015.

Baldeon, J., Puig, A., Santiago, I. R., & Lopes-Sanchez, M. (2015). Gamification of Elementary Math Learning : a Game Designer Role-Playing Experience With Kids. II International Workshop on Gamification in Education: GEducation 2015, February 2017.


Bell, K. (2018). Game on! gamification, gameful design, and the rise of the gamer educator. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bellos, A. (2010). Mathemagical. New Scientist, 206(2762), 44–49.

Biloch, A., & Löfstedt, A. (2013). Gamification and Performance Management: A tool for driving competitiveness through employee engagement. 141.

Broer, J. (2014). Gamification and the Trough of Disillusionment. Mensch & Computer 2014 - Workshopband, 389–396.

Chairul, I. (n.d.). Gamification Core Loop: What Makes Games Fun?

Charles M. Reigeluth. (n.d.). Instructional-Design Theories And Models Volume II.

Cheng, V. W. S., Davenport, T., Johnson, D., Vella, K., & Hickie, I. B. (2019). Gamification in apps and technologies for improving mental health and well-being: Systematic review. JMIR Mental Health, 6(6), 1–15.

Covaci, A., Ghinea, G., Lin, C.-H., Huang, S.-H., & Shih, J.-L. (2018). Multisensory games-based learning - lessons learnt from olfactory enhancement of a digital board game. Multimed Tools Appl, 77(16), 21245–21263.

Creswell, J. W. (2018). Fourth Edition: Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. In SAGE (fourth Edi, Vol. 59).

Duncan, M. J., Clarke, S., Myers, T., Tallis, J., & Arnab, S. (2018). A gamified and mystery-driven approach for facilitating problem based learning in a postgraduate strength and conditioning module. 13(1), 28–48.

Erdogan, V. (2019). Integrating 4C Skills of 21st Century into 4 Language Skills in EFL Classes Vacide Erdoğan. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(11), 113–124.

Fasni, N., Turmudi, T., & Kusnandi, K. (2017). Mathematical Problem Solving Ability of Junior High School Students through Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 895(1), 0–5.

Hunicke, R., Leblanc, M., & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research. AAAI Workshop - Technical Report, WS-04-04, 1–5.

Ibrahim, E. N. M., Jamali, N., & Suhaimi, A. I. H. (2021). Exploring gamification design elements for mental health support. International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, 8(74), 114–125.

İDawati̇, İ., Setyosari̇, P., Kuswandi̇, D., & Ulfa, S. (2020). The Effects of Problem Solving Method and Cognitive Flexibility in Improving University Students’ Metacognitive Skills. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 657–680.

Ilya, Nikulchev, E., A., A., & Y., A. (2015). Study of Gamification Effectiveness in Online e-Learning Systems. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 6(2), 71–77.

Ismail, M. E., Sa’Adan, N., Samsudin, M. A., Hamzah, N., Razali, N., & Mahazir, I. I. (2018). Implementation of the Gamification Concept Using KAHOOT! among TVET Students: An Observation. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1140(1).

Juric, P., Bakaric, M. B., & Matetic, M. (2021). Motivational Elements in Computer Games for Learning Mathematics. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 16(10), 275–287.

Jusuf, H. (2016). Penggunaan Gamifikasi dalam Proses Pembelajaran. 5, 6.

Kalogiannakis, M., & Papadakis, S. (2021). Education sciences Gamification in Science Education . A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Kapp, K. M. (2012). The Gamification Of Learning And Instruction. John Wiley & Sons.

Kenedi, dkk. (2019). Mathematical Connection Of Elementary School Students To Solve Mathematical Problems. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(1), 69–79.

Kirisci, N., Sak, U., & Karabacak, F. (2020). The effectiveness of the selective problem solving model on students’ mathematical creativity: A Solomon four-group research. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 38, 100719.

Kotob, M. M., & Ibrahim, A. (2019). Gamification: The Effect on Students’ Motivation and. 22.

Laksana, S. D. (2017). Improving the quality of learning mathematics through innovative learning media. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran Undiksha, 50(2), 79–85.

Marisa, F., Syed Ahmad, S. S., Mohd Yusoh, Z. I., Maukar, A. L., Marcus, R. D., & Widodo, A. A. (2020). Evaluation of Student Core Drives on e-Learning during the Covid-19 with Octalysis Gamification Framework. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 11(11), 104–116.

Middleton, H. (2009). Problem-solving in technology education as an approach to education for sustainable development. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 19(2), 187–197.

NCTM. (2003). Programs for Initial Preparation of Mathematics Teachers. Standards for Secondary Mathematics Teachers, 1–7.

Panis, I. C., Setyosari, P., Kuswandi, D., & Yuliati, L. (2020). Design Gamification Models in Higher Education: A Study in Indonesia. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(12), 244.

Persephone Rizvi. (2019). How To Use Gamification In 2019: What Works And What Doesn’t?

Pramusinta, Y., Setyosari, P., Widiati, U., & Kuswandi, D. (2019). Exploration of Metacognitive Skills And Student Critical Thinking Through Discovery Learning Method and Cognitive Style. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 999–1017.

Ramani, G. B., & Scalise, N. R. (2020). Early Childhood Research Quarterly It ’ s more than just fun and games : Play-based mathematics activities for Head Start families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 50, 78–89.

Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.

Subarinah, S. (2011). Creating Joyful Atmosphere In Mathematics Learning For Elementary School Students By Implementing Kopermatik Aids. 978–979.

Tambunan, H. (2019). The Effectiveness of the Problem Solving Strategy and the Scientific Approach to Students’ Mathematical Capabilities in High Order Thinking Skills. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(2), 293–302.

Tang, L. M., & Kay, J. (2014). Gamification: Metacognitive scaffolding towards long term goals? CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 1181, 63–68.

Turan, Z., Avinc, Z., Kara, K., & Goktas, Y. (2016). Gamification and education: Achievements, cognitive loads, and views of students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11(7), 64–69.

Udjaja, Y., Guizot, V. S., & Chandra, N. (2018). Gamification for Elementary Mathematics Learning in Indonesia. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 8(5), 3860.

Vejdemo-Johansson, M., Curry, J., & Corrigan, J. (2019). Mental Health in the Mathematics Community. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 66(07), 1.

Verbruggen, S., Depaepe, F., & Torbeyns, J. (2021). International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction Effectiveness of educational technology in early mathematics education : A systematic literature review. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 27, 100220.

Wangi, N. B. S., Setyosari, P., Kuswandi, D., & Dwiyogo, W. D. (2018). Gamification as a strategy to improve student learning motivation: Preparing student for 21st century. International Journal of Engineering and Technology(UAE), 7(2.14 Special Issue 14), 323–325.

Wols, A., Poppelaars, M., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., & Granic, I. (2020). The Role Of Motivation To Change And Mindsets In A Game Promoted For Mental Health. Entertainment Computing, 35(May), 100371.

Yamani, H. A. (2021). A Conceptual Framework for Integrating gamification in eLearning Systems Based on Instructional Design Model. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 16(4), 14–33.

Yayuk, E. (2020). Primary School Students’ Creative Thinking Skills in Mathematics Problem Solving. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(3), 1281–1295.

Zhang, Y. (Aimee) (Ed.). (2015). Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.




How to Cite

Laksana, S. D., Setyosari , P., Henry Praherdhiono, Dedi Kuswandi, & Dahlia Jannan. (2024). The Effect of the Use of Digital Gamification and Metacognitive Skills on Students’ Mathematics Solving Ability. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 14(3), 117–125.

Most read articles by the same author(s)